Category: Methods & Tools

Programmed Learning Model

Programmed Learning is essentially about formal or ‘packaged’ education opportunities that are positioned beyond informal learning that is often based on existing knowledge and experiences of individuals or bounded within a certain group.  (Coutts et al., 2005).  Programmed learning can be a formal qualification delivered by a Registered Training Organisation […]

Group Facilitation / Empowerment Model

This is about approaching extension as a bottom-up process to achieve change – as an exercise in human development for outcomes that have an impact at the farm, community and industry scale (Coutts et al., 2005).  It uses a facilitation process to help groups of motivated participants to identify and understand […]

Communities of Practice and Social Learning Systems

Communities of Practice (CoPs) is a multi-purpose concept.  As a social learning theory, CoP considers learning in a social context requiring both participation and reification (making something concrete) in order to make learning meaningful. The interplay of participation and reification creates a social history of learning and it is this […]

Agricultural Innovation Systems (AIS)

The Agriculture Innovation System (AIS) is “a network of organisations, enterprises, and individuals focused on bringing new products, new processes, and new forms of organisation into economic use, together with the institutions and policies that affect their behaviour and performance,” (World Bank, 2006:16) that is, the way different agents interact, share, […]

Stakeholder Analysis Tool

Stakeholder analysis is an important initial step in project work as it is a process that can provide insights into and an understanding of the interactions between a project and its stakeholders.  This tool can identify and prioritise which stakeholders can have impact on the project’s success and is often […]

Extension as a Knowledge System

This model of engagement is based on the ideas of knowledge systems being a series of interrelated functions and processes using terms such as knowledge brokering, knowledge translating, knowledge exchange and knowledge mobilisation.  
In 2012, at a conference hosted by the United Nations University – Institute of Water, Environment and health […]

Farming Systems Research

There are numerous definitions and practices around Farming Systems Research (FSR). However, according to the ACIAR definition of Farming Systems Research it is: 

Research related to the smallholder, subsistence-orientated agriculture sector because this is the principal target group for FSR through ACIAR; 
FSR projects are multidisciplinary and holistic in perspective, therefore projects […]