Extension Practice

Pareto’s Law

It is useful for Extension Professionals to consider Pareto’s Principle when planning and implementing extensions projects. Pareto’s Principle is often simplified to the 80/20 observation. It can be used to prioritise actions that will have the greatest effect.
Knowing that equal amounts of effort or inputs will not generate the same […]

What is Extension?

Extension is the practice of transferring information, knowledge or skills that can assist individuals, families, communities, organisations or businesses achieve improved economic, social and environmental outcomes and create positive change. This article provides a brief history of Extension in Australia.
Agricultural extension is as old as the domestication of plants and […]

Experiential Learning

David Kolb synthesised three models to develop key characteristics of experiential learning.
1)    The Lewinian Model
2)    The Dewey Model, and
3)    The Piaget Model
The Lewinian Model of Action Research and Laboratory Training believes learning is an integrated process involving a feedback loop amongst concrete experiences, observations and reflections, formation of abstract concepts […]

Participatory Research, Development and Extension – Sustainable Agriculture

Developed in the 1980s-1990s, Niels Roling argues for sustainable agricultural development practice (RD&E) to involve farmers in the R&D process as collaborators and driving the RD&E agenda, rather than simply being the end-users (i.e. A shift from a directive approach to participatory extension). Otherwise, Roling believed, there will be little change […]

Balanced Scorecard

The Balanced Scorecard (BSC) process can align operational activities with an organisation’s vision, improve internal and external communications, and monitor organisation performance against strategic goals. It is best considered a value-based strategic planning and management tool that can assist extension professionals and their client’s best consider what areas a business […]

Continuous Business Improvement Model

The concept of Continuous Business Improvement (CBI) in a project setting is a structured and methodical process for developing profitable farm businesses. It draws on innovations in business and relationships with people.  Its single most distinguishing feature is the in-built phase of reflection.
CBI in projects provides information on design and evaluation. […]

Adopt (Adoption and Diffusion Outcome Prediction Tool)

ADOPT has been designed to help evaluate and predict the likely level of adoption and spread of specific agricultural technologies and practices for particular target markets and where adoption will peak and the time it is most likely to. ADOPT is an MS Excel-based tool developed by CSIRO, the Victorian […]

Information Access Model

Information from projects, research and experiences on specific topics is being ‘lost’ and there is not a central outlet/repository to present this information; current availability of information is fragmented and therefore inaccessible or of limited use for people to learn from and use.  There is recognition that some people are […]

Extension Continuum

The extension continuum recognises that there are four major strategies or models in agricultural extension. It illustrates that as extension situations become more complex, emphasis should be given to approaches, processes and tools that empower people to engage in ongoing processes of experimentation, learning and human development.  
It recognises that there […]

Programmed Learning Model

Programmed Learning is essentially about formal or ‘packaged’ education opportunities that are positioned beyond informal learning that is often based on existing knowledge and experiences of individuals or bounded within a certain group.  (Coutts et al., 2005).  Programmed learning can be a formal qualification delivered by a Registered Training Organisation […]