Extension Practice

Information Access Model

Information from projects, research and experiences on specific topics is being ‘lost’ and there is not a central outlet/repository to present this information; current availability of information is fragmented and therefore inaccessible or of limited use for people to learn from and use.  There is recognition that some people are […]

Extension Continuum

The extension continuum recognises that there are four major strategies or models in agricultural extension. It illustrates that as extension situations become more complex, emphasis should be given to approaches, processes and tools that empower people to engage in ongoing processes of experimentation, learning and human development.  
It recognises that there […]

Programmed Learning Model

Programmed Learning is essentially about formal or ‘packaged’ education opportunities that are positioned beyond informal learning that is often based on existing knowledge and experiences of individuals or bounded within a certain group.  (Coutts et al., 2005).  Programmed learning can be a formal qualification delivered by a Registered Training Organisation […]

Extension as Communications

Improving food production and fostering economic development is not just a matter of individuals receiving messages and adopting the ‘right’ technologies, but more to do with altering interdependencies and coordinating the different actor roles. Societal issues arise from multiple localities and at various points in time and bring about a […]

Group Facilitation / Empowerment Model

This is about approaching extension as a bottom-up process to achieve change – as an exercise in human development for outcomes that have an impact at the farm, community and industry scale (Coutts et al., 2005).  It uses a facilitation process to help groups of motivated participants to identify and understand […]

Diffusion of Innovations Theory – Adoption and Diffusion

The Diffusion of Innovations theory was the leading theory in agricultural extension post World War II until the 1970s.  It is still used today in agricultural extension, particularly when extension is concerned with an adoption of a particular technology (i.e. technology transfer approach to extension). 
Everett M. Rogers is considered a […]

Extension is Capacity Building

Capacity Building and Community Engagement is seen as a key development in the contemporary extension space and so is described in more detail as an approach.  This is in the context of recognising the constantly changing conditions in which extension takes place (i.e. changing mix of institutional, cultural, political, technological, […]

Communities of Practice and Social Learning Systems

Communities of Practice (CoPs) is a multi-purpose concept.  As a social learning theory, CoP considers learning in a social context requiring both participation and reification (making something concrete) in order to make learning meaningful. The interplay of participation and reification creates a social history of learning and it is this […]

Agricultural Innovation Systems (AIS)

The Agriculture Innovation System (AIS) is “a network of organisations, enterprises, and individuals focused on bringing new products, new processes, and new forms of organisation into economic use, together with the institutions and policies that affect their behaviour and performance,” (World Bank, 2006:16) that is, the way different agents interact, share, […]