Developed in the 1980s-1990s, Niels Roling argues for sustainable agricultural development practice (RD&E) to involve farmers in the R&D process as collaborators and driving the RD&E agenda, rather than simply being the end-users (i.e. A shift from a directive approach to participatory extension). Otherwise, Roling believed, there will be little change […]
The Balanced Scorecard (BSC) process can align operational activities with an organisation’s vision, improve internal and external communications, and monitor organisation performance against strategic goals. It is best considered a value-based strategic planning and management tool that can assist extension professionals and their client’s best consider what areas a business […]
The concept of Continuous Business Improvement (CBI) in a project setting is a structured and methodical process for developing profitable farm businesses. It draws on innovations in business and relationships with people. Its single most distinguishing feature is the in-built phase of reflection.
CBI in projects provides information on design and evaluation. […]
ADOPT has been designed to help evaluate and predict the likely level of adoption and spread of specific agricultural technologies and practices for particular target markets and where adoption will peak and the time it is most likely to. ADOPT is an MS Excel-based tool developed by CSIRO, the Victorian […]
Information from projects, research and experiences on specific topics is being ‘lost’ and there is not a central outlet/repository to present this information; current availability of information is fragmented and therefore inaccessible or of limited use for people to learn from and use. There is recognition that some people are […]
The extension continuum recognises that there are four major strategies or models in agricultural extension. It illustrates that as extension situations become more complex, emphasis should be given to approaches, processes and tools that empower people to engage in ongoing processes of experimentation, learning and human development.
It recognises that there […]
Programmed Learning is essentially about formal or ‘packaged’ education opportunities that are positioned beyond informal learning that is often based on existing knowledge and experiences of individuals or bounded within a certain group. (Coutts et al., 2005). Programmed learning can be a formal qualification delivered by a Registered Training Organisation […]
Improving food production and fostering economic development is not just a matter of individuals receiving messages and adopting the ‘right’ technologies, but more to do with altering interdependencies and coordinating the different actor roles. Societal issues arise from multiple localities and at various points in time and bring about a […]
This is about approaching extension as a bottom-up process to achieve change – as an exercise in human development for outcomes that have an impact at the farm, community and industry scale (Coutts et al., 2005). It uses a facilitation process to help groups of motivated participants to identify and understand […]
The Diffusion of Innovations theory was the leading theory in agricultural extension post World War II until the 1970s. It is still used today in agricultural extension, particularly when extension is concerned with an adoption of a particular technology (i.e. technology transfer approach to extension).
Everett M. Rogers is considered a […]