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Biosecurity – procedures or measures designed to protect the population against harmful biological or biochemical substances

Chlorosis – loss of the normal green colouration of leaves of plants, caused by iron deficiency in lime-rich soils, disease, or lack of light

Coalesce – come together to form one mass or whole

Conidium – a spore produced asexually by various fungi at the tip of a specialised hypha

Cosmopolitan – a plant or animal found all over the world

Cotyledon – an embryonic leaf in seed-bearing plants, one or more of which are the first leaves to appear from a germinating seed

Cruciferous crops – relating to or denoting plants of the cabbage family

Diapause – a period of suspended development in an insect, other invertebrate, or mammal embryo, especially during unfavourable environmental conditions

Discolouration – the process of becoming discoloured, or the state of being discoloured

Dorsal – on or relating to the upper side or back of an animal, plant, or organ

Epidermis – the outer layer of tissue in a plant, expect where it is replaced by periderm

Enzyme – a substance produced by a living organism which acts as a catalyst to bring about a specific biochemical reaction

Femurs – the third segment of the leg in insects and some other arthropods, typically the longest and thickest segment

Forewing – either of the two front wings of a four-winged insect

Frass – the excrement of insect larvae

Host – an animal or plant on or in which a parasite or commensal organism lives

Hypocotyl – the part of the stem of an embryo plant beneath the stalks of the seed leaves or cotyledons and directly above the root

Instar – a phase between two periods of moulting in the development of an insect larva or other invertebrate

Leaf mining – is that habit of consuming live foliage while simultaneously dwelling inside it

Lesion – a region in an organ or tissue which has suffered damage through injury or disease, such as a wound, ulcer, abscess, or tumour

Longitudinal – running lengthwise rather than across

Microsclerotia – small, pinhead-sized structures, capable of surviving under unfavorable conditions

Pathogen – a bacterium, visus, or other microorganism that can cause disease

Pedicel – a small stalk bearing an individual flower in an inflorescence

Periphery – the outer limits or edge of an area or object

Petiole – the stalk that joins a leaf to a stem

Pith – the spongy cellular tissue in the stems and branches of many higher plants

Pustule – a small raised spot or rounded swelling, especially one on a plant resulting from fungal infection

Relative humidity – the amount of water vapour present in air expressed as a percentage of the amount needed for saturation at the same temperature

Rostrum – a beak like projection, especially a sniff snout or anterior prolongation of the head in an insect

Senescence – loss of a cell’s power of division and growth

Vascular tissue – relating to or denoting the plant tissues (xylem and phloem) which conduct water, sap, and nutrients in flowering plants, ferns, and their relatives

Wilt – become limp through heat, loss of water, or disease; droop

Xylem – the vascular tissue in plants which conducts water and dissolved nutrients upwards from the root and also helps to form the wood element of the stem

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